The legion fought in various provinces of the late Roman Republic and early Roman Empire. It was stationed in Britain following the Roman invasion in 43 AD. The legion disappears from surviving Roman records after c. AD and there is no extant account of what happened to it. The unknown fate of the legion has been the subject of considerable research and speculation. One theory per historian Theodor Mommsen was that the legion was wiped out in action in northern Britain soon after , the date of the latest datable inscription of the Ninth found in Britain, perhaps during a rising of northern tribes against Roman rule.
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The legion's fate is unknown but has been the subject of considerable interest and research. It was based in York in The theory that it was destroyed in action north of Hadrian's Wall around was popularized by a novel but was somewhat discredited when tile stamps later found in Nijmegen show that the legion was still based there between and The origin of the legion is uncertain, but Caesar is known to have found a Ninth Legion already based in Gaul in 58 BC,  where it remained during the whole campaign of the Gallic wars.
After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum. Following Caesar's assassination, Octavian recalled the veterans of the Ninth to fight against the rebellion of Sextus Pompeius in Sicily. After defeating Sextus, they were sent to the province of Macedonia.
With Octavian as sole ruler of the Roman world, the legion was sent to Hispania to take part in the large-scale campaign against the Cantabrians 25—13 BC.
The nickname Hispana "stationed in Spain" is first found during the reign of Augustus and probably originated at this time. After this, the legion was probably a member of the imperial army in the Rhine border that was campaigning against the Germanic tribes. In 43 AD they probably participated in the Roman invasion of Britain led by emperor Claudius and general Aulus Plautius , because they soon appear amongst the provincial garrison.
Under the command of Caesius Nasica they put down the first revolt of Venutius between 52 and The Ninth suffered a serious defeat under Quintus Petillius Cerialis in the rebellion of Boudica 61 and was later reinforced with legionaries from the Germania provinces.
Around 71 AD, they constructed a new fortress at York Eboracum , as shown by finds of tile-stamps from the site. It is often said that the legion disappeared in Britain about AD. It has been suggested that the legion may have been destroyed during the Bar Kochba Revolt in Iudaea Province, or possibly in the ongoing conflict with the Parthian Empire but there is no firm evidence for this. The last testified activity of the Ninth in Britain is during the rebuilding in stone of the legionary fortress at York Eboracum in AD.
Its subsequent movements remain unknown, but there is crucial evidence, in the form of two stamped tiles, of the Legion's presence at Nijmegen Noviomagus in the Netherlands, which had been evacuated by X Gemina. Two passages from ancient literature are thought to have a bearing on the problem. The Ninth was certainly no longer in existence by the mid-2nd century as a list of legions compiled during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius — AD fails to mention it.
Sheppard Frere , an eminent Romano-British authority, has concluded that, "further evidence is needed before more can be said". Further speculation about a serious British war during the reign of Hadrian may be supported by a tombstone recovered from Vindolanda , Chesterholm in Northumberland. The Ninth Legion's mysterious disappearance has made it a popular subject for historical fiction, fantasy and science fiction.
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The Roman Ninth Legion's mysterious loss
The legion's fate is unknown but has been the subject of considerable interest and research. It was based in York in The theory that it was destroyed in action north of Hadrian's Wall around was popularized by a novel but was somewhat discredited when tile stamps later found in Nijmegen show that the legion was still based there between and The origin of the legion is uncertain, but Caesar is known to have found a Ninth Legion already based in Gaul in 58 BC,  where it remained during the whole campaign of the Gallic wars. After his final victory, Caesar disbanded the legion and settled the veterans in the area of Picenum.
Legio IX Hispana
Its name means "the Spanish Legion". With the Seventh , Eighth and Tenth legions, the Ninth was among the oldest units in the imperial Roman army. The Roman commander mentions the Ninth Legion in his accounts of the battle against the Nervians. During the civil war against Caesar's fellow- triumvir and rival Pompey, it fought in Hispania in the battle of Ilerda Summer 49 ; later, the soldiers were transferred to Placentia in northern Italy, where they briefly revolted. In the spring of 48, the Ninth served at Dyrrhachium , where it suffered heavily.
Legio VIIII Hispana
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The Mystery of the Lost Legion: One of the Most Experienced Legions Vanished
What could have happened to the 9 th Legion? How could it simply disappear? The fate of the 9 th has been the subject of debate for scholars for almost three hundred years. In the period between AD and around AD, one of the most experienced legions vanished from the strength of the Imperial Roman Army. It was last recorded as serving in Britain but there is no record of what subsequently happened to the Legio IX Hispana and its fate has given rise to intense debate and speculation. When Octavian triumphed and became the Emperor Augustus in 27 BCE, the 9 th was established as one of the most trusted core units of the new imperial army. Almost seventy years later, Claudius became Emperor and decided on an invasion of Britain.