Max Peter Baumann University of Bamberg. Abstract The Local and the Global share a close mutual relationship of change and exchange in an intercultural way. Using the example of the Bolivian charango, the intercultural dynamics and development of a string instrument will be outlined in terms of its structure. The complex process of cultural transformation and adoption is investigated and described under the general viewpoints of acculturation during the colonial period and mental syncretism as well as of modern transculturation processes under globalization. While individual elements can be rather easily identified within the early phases of historical acculturation until the end of World War II, this is less often the case with the increased acceleration of cultural mixing and the spread of modern means of transcultural communication. In principle, the musician of today can call up any kind of information from any place without having to leave his or her four walls.
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Max Peter Baumann University of Bamberg. Abstract The Local and the Global share a close mutual relationship of change and exchange in an intercultural way.
Using the example of the Bolivian charango, the intercultural dynamics and development of a string instrument will be outlined in terms of its structure. The complex process of cultural transformation and adoption is investigated and described under the general viewpoints of acculturation during the colonial period and mental syncretism as well as of modern transculturation processes under globalization.
While individual elements can be rather easily identified within the early phases of historical acculturation until the end of World War II, this is less often the case with the increased acceleration of cultural mixing and the spread of modern means of transcultural communication.
In principle, the musician of today can call up any kind of information from any place without having to leave his or her four walls. Still, every person interested in music must make basic decisions concerning how they want to selectively form their own musical environment. In view of the behaviors of individual musicians, musical groups, listeners, creative artists and cultural managers, such pluricultural processes can be systematized in a somewhat simplified way in a model.
This model see Fig. As in all descriptions of dynamic processes, the transitions from one category to another are flexible, and it is not seldom that they are expressed in human and musical behavior in a contradictory way.
This simple bilateral and interactive process of confrontation between Cultures A and B may be historically described as acculturation or in a more general or operational sense as an intercultural situation.
A situation becomes acculturative when two cultures clash. The situation becomes multicultural when more than two musical cultures e. The individual musician, music group, listener or manager, etc. Processes of acculturation stretch over several generations and themselves can never be considered completely finished.
Where elements of two or more cultures are exchanged over a longer time period, the affected cultures react with rigidity or flexibility:. As already mentioned, between the two rigid attitudes of rejection and complete openness toward the other is the selective or flexible position that leads to a cultural connection or blending of A and B, of the own and the other.
This process of transculturation or fusion of cultural elements of different provenance can itself be divided into three basic types according to the principle of attitude: 1 the attitude of compartmentalization, 2 that of syncretism and 3 that of transformation.
According to research of Alan Merriam , compartmentalization is a possible solution within cultural fusion, that is, the music of the host culture survives practically untouched next to the other type of music. This results in a kind of bimusicality of the cultural bearers. Both cultural elements lead an existence on equal footing with the other, without mixing with each other; this represents the level of least cultural intertwining. In fact, there are musicians who are bimusical, trimusical or even polyglot.
Musical characteristics are kept separate and are hardly, if at all, mixed with each other. A Bolivian musician may be able to play for example traditional siku panflutes in hocket technique, as well as the acculturated charango and the Western clarinet in a European-style orchestra.
Sometimes he plays in a jazz group too, never mixing the different musical styles with each other. This is a different case in syncretism. Syncretism is particularly displayed in the religious field. A well-known example of musical syncretism is songs of foreign cultures that have been adopted and adapted into European choral arrangements. The South American pentatonic song, for example, is harmonized in the Western manner, or black rap music is adapted and made Peruvian.
Instrumental ensembles place instruments from diverse cultures together. In Peruvian chicha music, rhythms, traditional instruments, charango and synthesizer are directly mixed with each other.
Andean huayno rhythms are mixed with Oriental ones, urban and rural elements are played by the synthesizer. In the early phase of acculturative processes, foreign musical styles are first imitated, then later adapted to the own existing styles and texts.
In the course of taking over foreign rhythms or musical instruments, one cultural pattern tends to dominate over the other, either the own or the foreign. Usually we can speak of transformation during the later phase of intercultural encounter or acculturation. This involves as a rule a newly created mixed culture that has reinterpreted elements from the Cultures A, B, C, D, etc.
This is the case for example when everything is integrated in a particular way and something creatively new results which leaves behind the independence of both Cultures A and B, etc. There are musicians who play in traditional folklore groups and have mastered on their instruments on a more-or-less equal level the languages of jazz, classical music or pop music.
They have become also very often polyglot or multicultural in blending different styles and in transforming them to new creations. Compartmentalization, syncretism and transformation are thus musical patterns of behavior which can exist simultaneously within one culture or one person.
The level of mastery of a musicians comprises their particular and multicultural behavior. The charango as archetype is a product of the contact that resulted from the acculturation process in the encounter between Iberian and Andean cultural traditions. Indeed, it implies in basic terms the colonial power gap between the Spanish on the one hand and the indigenous population on the other.
Holmes in American anthropology. Redfield, R. Linton and M. Herskovits in Thurnwald ; Barnett , Merriam , Rudolph ; Laade ff. In contrast to innovation, which represents a change that has taken place within the own culture, and thus is endogenous, acculturation from Latin, ad-colore is defined as a process of exogenous direct cultural contact face-to-face. However, in later phases and with the increasing pluralism of multicultural societies, this process can hardly be directly observed anymore and is being increasingly displaced by processes of indirect, medial acculturation.
The causes of the acculturation process, and of change and behavior development in general, are determined differently case by case due to demographic, historical-political, ecological, economic, technological, philosophical, religious, social and psychic factors in complex interaction Fig. Wherever one or more musical systems come into contact directly or indirectly that is, through the media , processes and phenomena of acculturation ensue. Such changes can be, for example, the effects of Western music on non-Europeans, or of city music on that of the countryside, or the other way around.
Such changes are seen in their:. In order to study the process of musical acculturation, one must have at least a fair knowledge of the one as well as the other culture in order to comprehend in their typologies the mutual interpenetrations of the two.
In this sense, acculturation research represents a methodological hypothesis concerning a process of dynamic historical change. Evidence can be found in the comparison of two or more musical systems seen as types from which a new, acculturated musical system emerges as a result of reciprocal influences. The goal of acculturation research is primarily to point out causes and effects within the entire musical culture.
Without doubt, a classic instrument of musical acculturation is the charango, which is well-known not only throughout South American but also worldwide, having become a true icon of South American music since the s. This instrument was adopted by Andean countries, where, with the exception of the musical bow arco musical , no stringed instruments had been previously known cf. Balfour ; Baumann ; The charango is a bowl-shaped, long-necked lute.
The acculturated instrument derives indirectly from the Spanish family of vihuelas. The vihuela originally corresponded to the aristocratic plucked instrument of Spanish art music of the 16th and 17th centuries and had similar significance as the lute in Germany and France, though it was much smaller.
In contrast to the vihuela , on which the strings were plucked individually punteado , this instrument could be strummed in chords rasgueado. It thus corresponded to the Venezuelan and Colombian cuatro or tiple , and the Mexican jurana , as well as to the Andean guitarrilla , also known as charango mediano. An additional relief with this motive was also installed in the entrance doorway to the cathedral of Puno, finished in Here vihuelas and guitarras had taken over an important role in urban music life, and new instruments were copied as soon as they were imported Cavour; Vallejo et al.
Through the migration of musicians and instrument makers, the instrument spread quickly through the various social classes. It had five, six, or seven double courses and underwent a fusion with the baroque guitar of that time, which had four to five double courses.
One of the first written sources in colonial Peru is documented by Guaman Poma de Ayala in his chronicles of He mentions the vihuela as an instrument of the Spanish criollos that was brought to the Andes.
The drawing represents more or less the older Renaissance instrument with only four strings. Vihuela de mano, according to Guaman Poma de Ayala ar. Wide variation can be discerned in the stringing of vihuela instruments of the 16th and 17th centuries. However, a standard of five double courses of strings increasingly gained acceptance. Typus Cytharae Hispanicae , A. Kircher fol. Paris, Interesting enough in the Andes one still can find many of these small guitarrillas , and with a similar construction.
A comparable guitarrilla can be found not only in the urban sphere of Quechua-singing mestizos, but also in rural areas such as the Bolivian Chipayas Baumann The Chipayas, for example, have four small guitarrillas in three different sizes that provide the rhythmic accompaniment to their alternating singing.
The tuning timplis also comprises the basic tones of the song d'd'—a'a'—f'f'—c'c'—g'g'. With exception of the first and second pairs of strings, the most usual tuning of the modern charango corresponds to the tuning concordantia of Kircher. Guitarrilla of the Chipayas with five double-coursed strings. Ayparavi, departamento de Oruro photo: M.
Baumann, 16 June The shift in the segment of the population supporting this instrumental tradition was brought about not only by demographic changes that ensued with the colonizing conquerors but also by the transfer of Indios to the mining centers soon thereafter. The charango was adapted to the construction materials available in the immediate surroundings. In some places it did not remain simply the smaller form of the five double-coursed guitarrilla.
These were mostly districts near the tropical forests, where the charango developed so that the sounding body could be fashioned from one single wood block charango de madera , though retaining its relatively complicated mode of production. The wooden pegs inserted from behind found in rural areas were generally replaced in urban areas with steel pegs with spiral screws inserted from the sides, and nylon strings displaced the steel ones. While the instrument used to be strung with animal tendons and gut in the villages for lack of metal wire, stringing with metal courses has since emerged predominant among the Indios, who prefer a metallic sound.
Like the front pegs, synthetic strings were also imported from Argentina, and Andean Indios could hardly afford them. Criollos and mestizos in urban regions, however, play almost exclusively on synthetic strings. With its early adoption by the Indios, the guitarrilla got its new name: in Quechua, charanku , or charango in Spanish.
Other explanations are that the word derives from the Spanish words charanga and charanguero , which were uses by authors at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century.
The instrument leads the way for the donkeys carrying the loads burruqhatina : burru-qhatiy meaning to drive a donkey and at the same time also the melody [ tonada ] of the charango. Baumann, 25 July,
The typical tuning for a standard charanago is gg, cc, eE, aa , ee , from the 10th to 1st highest string. These 10 strings are separated into pairs. The lowest note is the 5th string E. For a guitar player it will seem curious that the lowest string is in the center of the strings. This type of tuning is call re-entrant tuning and it is typical of the Spanish vihuelas and guitars of the 16th and 17th century. Since the re-entrant tuning of the charango may be confusing in the beginning, I have decided to give the frequencies for each string. In the past, frequencies for each note were given in cycles per second , now it is common to call the frequencies Hertz which is abbreviated as Hz.
Ernesto Cavour - Aprenda a Tocar Charango.