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Aconitum Heterophyllum A. Heterophyllum is an indigenous medicinal plant of India and belongs to the family Ranunculaceae. Heterophyllum is known to possess a number of therapeutic effects. For very ancient times, this plant has been used in some formulations in the traditional healing system of India, i.
It is reported to have use in treating patients with urinary infections, diarrhea, and inflammation. It also has been used as an expectorant and for the promotion of hepatoprotective activity. The chemical studies of the plant have revealed that various parts of the plant contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, saponins, glycosides, quinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, etc.
In the present study, a comprehensive phytochemistry and pharmacognosy, as well as the medicinal properties, of A. Heterophyllum are discussed.
Scientific information on the plant was collected from various sources, such as electronic sources Google scholar, Pubmed and some old classical text books of Ayurveda and Ethnopharmacology. The study also presents a review of the literature on A. Heterophyllum , as well as the primary pharmacological and other important findings on this medicine.
This review article should provide useful information to and be a valuable tool for new researchers who are initiating studies on the plant A. India has an ancient and rich heritage of traditional medicine.
Ayurveda is accepted as an ancient medicinal system that originated in Indian. Ayurveda is accepted to be an upaveda part of Atharavaveda B. All the formulations mentioned in the Ayurvedic Formulary of India are still used in India, and recently, those formulations have begun to spread worldwide [ 1 ]. Heterophyllum is an ayurvedic medicinal plant used as the main ingredient in many formulations mentioned in the Ayurvedic formulary of India. Aconitum species are also used as major components in Chinese and Bhutanese herbal medicines.
This plant is also known in Indian English as atees and atis root, in Sanskrit as ativisha, shuklakanda, aruna, and vishada, in Urdu as atees, in Hindi as atis and atvika, in Bengali as ataish, in Telugu as ati vasa, in Guajarati as ativakhani, in Marathi as ati vish, in Kannada as ati-vishsa, in Malayalam as ati-vidayam, and in Panjabi as atis [ 2 ]. About species of Aconitum are found worldwide, of which 24 species are found in India. Medicinal A. Heterophyllum consists of dried, tuberous roots of A.
Heterophyllum Wall. Royle, a perennial herb native to the western Himalayas and found in Kashmir, Uttarakhand Sikkim, and Nepal at altitudes between 2, and 4, m. Most of the species are highly toxic in nature, being known as the Queen of all poisons, with several species having been used, and still being used, on the tips of hunting spike. Thus, this plant must be handled carefully [ 4 , 5 ]. The plant A. Heterophyllum is reported to have antidiarrheal, expectorant, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antipyretic and analgesic, antioxidant, alexipharmic, anodyne, anti-atrabilious, anti-flatulent, anti-periodic, anti-phlegmatic, and carminative properties; furthermore, it can be used to treat patients with reproductive disorders [ 6 — 8 ].
Table 1 presents its scientific classification. Scientific classification of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 2 ]. The roots of A. Heterophyllum appear whitish grey in color and are 2. Stems are simple and branched, 15 — 20 cm in height, and green in color.
Heterophyllum is a small plant with a straight stem, but sometimes occurs with branches. It is a tree that has blue or yellow flowers from August to September Fig. The leaves of this herb are a heteromorphous dark green in color. The upper parts of the leaves are amplexicaul, and the lowest parts of the leaves are long petioles.
The plant has have a spiral alternate arrangement [ 9 ]. Preliminary macroscopic characteristics of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 3 ]. Preliminary microscopic characteristics of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 9 ]. Single layered epidermis consisting of light-brown tabular cells rupturing on formation of cork. Much wider cortex consisting of tangentially elongated or rounded, thin-walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces, cells. For the cultivation of A. Heterophyllum , the suitable altitude is about 2, — 3, m above sea level.
The plant is mostly found in sub-alpine and alpine region of the Himalayas. Heterophyllum is cultivated in moist soil, and the rain fall required for the cultivation of natural and transplanted populations of A. Heterophyllum is Heterophyllum plants are grown from seeds and tuberous roots; seeds collect and germinat only in the beginning of the spring, March to April.
Generally, one to two daughter tubers are produced by the end of the growing season. Daughter tubers are collected during autumn after the aerial shoots have senesced and are replanted in the spring. The new plants produce leafy shoots during the first year of the growth while the cultivated plants produce flowers during the second year of growth [ 4 ].
Heterophyllum has various medicinal uses. It is reported to have antidiarrheal activity when taken with fine powder of dry ginger, Beel Bellpetra in India fruit, or Nutmeg jaiphal in India. The juice of the root when taken with milk acts as an expectorant. The seeds are used as a diuretic. Furthermore, the plant is used to treat patients with reproductive disorders and is known to have hepatoprotective, antipyretic and analgesic, antioxidant, alexipharmic, anodyne, anti-atrabilious, anti-flatulent, anti-periodic, anti-phlegmatic, and carminative properties.
Jabeen et al developed a fingerprinting method for identifying the bioactive compounds present in A. The assay was rapid and reproducible. A reliable and accurate HPLC method coupled with DAD was developed for simultaneous quantitative determination of six aconitum alkaloids: aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine, benzoylaconine, benzoylmesaconine, and benzoylhypaconine [ 10 ]. The identified chemical constituents found in A. Heterophyllum are presented in Table 4 , and the corresponding structures of those constituents are presented in Table 5.
Chemical constituents of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 6 , 11 ]. Phytochemical structures present in Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 6 ]. In the present review, we have made an attempt to assemble all available information on A. Heterophyllum , such as its botanical, photochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological properties. Heterophyllum is a medicinal herb used in the traditional Indian medicine system known as the Ayurvedic system.
It has many pharmacological properties, such as its alexipharmic, anodyne, anti-atrabilious, anti-flatulent, anti-periodic, anti-phlegmatic, carminative, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and expectorant properties, but in nature, most species of aconitum are extremely toxic due to the presence of certain phytoconstituents.
Heterophyllum is the intoxicating source of the phytochemical constituents that are responsible for its pharmacological activities. This plant has medicinal value, as has been proven through the history of this ancient formulation. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List J Pharmacopuncture v. J Pharmacopuncture. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Ravindra Pandey. Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur C. Abstract Aconitum Heterophyllum A. Keywords: aconitum heterophyllum, diterpene alkaloids, ranunculaceae. Introduction India has an ancient and rich heritage of traditional medicine.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Table 1 Scientific classification of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 2 ]. Description The roots of A. Table 2 Preliminary macroscopic characteristics of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 3 ]. Stems Simple and branched 15—20 cm in height Green in color Small plant with a straight stem Sometime occurs in branches Leaves Heteromorphous dark green in color Upper parts are amplexicaul Lowest parts are long petioles Roots Paired whitesh grey in color 2.
Table 3 Preliminary microscopic characteristics of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 9 ]. Roots Transverse section of the mature root shows Single layered epidermis consisting of light-brown tabular cells rupturing on formation of cork 5 — 10 rows of tangentially elongated, thin-walled cells Cork cambium single layer consisting of tangentially elongated, thin-walled cells Much wider cortex consisting of tangentially elongated or rounded, thin-walled parenchymatous cells with intercellular spaces, cells.
Cultivation and Collection For the cultivation of A. Medicinal Importance of A. Heterophyllum A. Table 4 Chemical constituents of Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 6 , 11 ]. Table 5 Phytochemical structures present in Aconitum Heterophyllum [ 6 ]. Chemical constituents secohetisanol N-succinoylanthranilate Atesinol 6-benzoylheterastine N-diethyl-N-formyllaconitine Methyl aconitine Aconitine Anthorine.
Conclusion In the present review, we have made an attempt to assemble all available information on A. References 1. Peganam harmala Indian traditional plant: a scientific update. Spatula DD.
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These herbaceous perennial plants are chiefly native to the mountainous parts of the Northern Hemisphere,  growing in the moisture-retentive but well-draining soils of mountain meadows. Most species are extremely poisonous  and must be dealt with very carefully. The dark green leaves of Aconitum species lack stipules. They are palmate or deeply palmately lobed with five to seven segments. Each segment again is trilobed with coarse sharp teeth.