Standard IEC substation automation. The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC standard is the reference communication protocol for all electrical substations protection and control systems. It creates models of all the elements and functionalities of an electrical substation, including physical elements such as switches or circuit breakers, as well as protection, control and monitoring functionalities. Network managers need to renew power substation automation and control systems in order to improve the efficiency and quality of services offered by electric utilities. Selta has proposed a new integrated solution for the automation of power substations which is fully compliant with the IEC norms.
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Standard IEC substation automation. The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC standard is the reference communication protocol for all electrical substations protection and control systems.
It creates models of all the elements and functionalities of an electrical substation, including physical elements such as switches or circuit breakers, as well as protection, control and monitoring functionalities. Network managers need to renew power substation automation and control systems in order to improve the efficiency and quality of services offered by electric utilities.
Selta has proposed a new integrated solution for the automation of power substations which is fully compliant with the IEC norms. The solution involves the integration of control, automation, protection, monitoring and maintenance functions and applies leading edge technology to its systems, particularly for the TERNA network.
The system is based on the use of many electronic devices at a power plant, each one with a specialized function, and all interconnected via a Station LAN. It was shown to offer many advantages, such as an architecture based on full interoperability between control, monitoring and protection equipment; centralized and distributed automation; a LAN station that allows full interoperability between different bay units and protection relays in order to integrate equipment from various suppliers; the integration of automation systems in existing bay units and protection relays equipped with standard communication buses or with proprietary interfaces; and time synchronization for the entire system through a station GPS reception system.
China and IEC international standardization activities. International Electrotechnical Commission IEC , one of the currently worlswide largest and most authoritative international standardization organizations,is specialized in developing and promulgating international standards for the electric and electronic fields, which are widespread adopted through out the world and play an important role in the international trade of electric and electronic products.
Full text: An International Standard is a document, established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.
As such, it is a mechanism for sharing knowledge in a particular field. The consensus process used to approve the content of standards ensures that the content is essentially peer-reviewed. This presentation will explain how International Standards are developed and used and their importance in the dissemination of scientific and engineering information. It will also explain the role of the IEC in ensuring that the process for developing standards meets the core principles of the Code of Good Practice of the WTO TBT agreement: transparency, openness, impartiality and consensus, effectiveness and relevance, coherence, and addressing the concerns of developing countries.
Changes in IEC standards related to diagnostic radiology. Complete test of publication follows. An outlook of its activities and present situation, and especially of radiation protection aspects, is given. Materials and methods. Third edition of basic safety standard for medical electrical equipment IEC was issued in Elaboration of new collateral and particular standards - applicable together with it - is in progress. These standards are generally at the same time also European - EN - and national standards.
There is a great importance of radiation protection in diagnostic X-ray equipment. Collateral standard IEC about it was at first issued in Rapid development of imaging technology demands updating of requirements. SC62B in founded a maintenance team MT37 for preparation of the second edition of this standard. According to new safety philosophy of IEC all modality specific requirements are to be collected in 'safety and essential performance' particular standards.
A new working group WG42 - founded in - elaborates a new particular standard IEC for radiographic and radioscopic equipment. Maintenance team MT32 deals with safety and performance standards for X-ray tube assemblies. The authors actively participate in these activities. Results and discussion. Present and future system of diagnostic radiology IEC standards and some interesting details are presented.
International standards - although they are not 'obligatory' - are generally the basis of safety and performance certification of diagnostic radiology equipment and often also of their quality assurance. Electrotechnical standardization is traditionally an area characterized of large international collaboration, cooperation between government agencies, manufacturers and users. Standardization work has previously been a natural part of power companies' activities related to the extensive expansion activities, own construction business and to generally maintain a good knowledge base of staff.
Taking part in the establishment of standards have been a good way to ensure long-term approach made in investments and a guarantee of open competition between manufacturers. Maintenance efforts have also been reduced by using established standards. The acceleration of technological progress has, however, increased pressure on standardization organizations, committee work etc.
Reregulation of the electricity market in Sweden has also led to a difference in the standardization process. An increasing number of experts who have worked with standards is currently located at power companies consultancy activities. What was once a natural part of the power companies' internal skills provision today are exposed to a commercial assessment. In Elforsk was appointed by the owners the task of coordinating the power companies' joint standardization work within specifically electrical engineering.
Of over nuclear and radiation protection standards , laws, regulations, recommendations, etc. Both number and importance of international standards are, however, increasing. There are over 20 member countries actively participating in the work in each of them, with additional observer countries and liaison to the relevant other international organizations.
It covers nuclear safety and instrumentation, radiation protection, and the nuclear fuel cycle, as well as interface issues including definitions and terminology, interaction of the activities with the work of other national and international bodies, etc. Some problem areas are also briefly discussed. Implementation of IEC standard models for power system stability studies. Margaris, Ioannis D. This paper presents the implementation of the generic wind turbine generator WTG electrical simulation models proposed in the IEC standard which is currently in preparation.
A general overview of the different WTG types is given while the main focus is on Type 4B WTG standard model, namely a model for a variable speed wind turbine with full scale power converter WTG including a 2-mass mechanical model.
The generic models for fixed and variable speed WTGs models are suitable for fundamental frequency positive sequence response simulations during short events in the power system such as voltage dips. The general configuration of the models is presented and discussed; model implementation in the simulation software platform DIgSILENT PowerFactory is presented in order to illustrate the range of applicability of the generic models under discussion.
A typical voltage dip is simulated and results from the basic electrical variables of the WTG are presented and discussed. An IEC standard on quality assurance for diagnostic X-ray systems.
This is followed by a short discussion of general aspects of quality assurance in the diagnostic department. From this discussion it becomes apparent to which aspects of quality assurance IEC can contribute. Within that framework a working group of Sub-Committee 62 is at present active in developing a standard on quality assurance for diagnostic X-ray systems. The standard will contain a set of constancy tests that is claimed to allow a balanced quality assurance programme.
The democratic procedure of IEC should guarantee that the proposed standard gains wide acceptance. IEC is mainly engaged in the international standardization for electrical and electronic technology field aiming at promoting international trade and technology cooperation and exchange, improving product and service quality, upgrading productivity and protecting the environment as well as human health and safety.
Most countries worldwide adopt standards developed and promulgated by IEC , providing a platform to international trade and technical exchange. China has being a member since Electronic and IT are the most developed and energetic filed in recent decades.
IEEE standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant.
The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available The rapid progress in the filed of information security IS puts one in a need of periodic revision of professional competencies formulated in the federal state educational standards —FSESs and working functions formulated in the professional standards — PSs.
Under these conditions, a timely reaction to everything new that emerges or will appear in modern regulatory documents primarily in standards is extremely important. This paper describes the implementation of electrical simulation model for IEC standard Type-3A generator.
A general overview of the different wind electric generators WEG types are given and the main focused on Type-3A WEG standard models, namely a model for a variable speed wind tur The state of the practice in enterprise and software architecture learnt that relevant architectural aspects should be illustrated in multiple views, targeting the various concerns of different stakeholders. This has been expressed a.
Experience gained during the external accreditation of the Acoustical Standards Program at the Institute for National Measurement Standards of the National Research Council is discussed. Some highlights include the preparation of documents for calibration procedures, control documents with attention to reducing future paper work and the need to maintain documentation or paper trails to satisfy the external assessors. This work presents a methodology for the X radiation qualities characterization following the new recommendations of the standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC to establish a new procedure for calibration of dosimetric systems used in the field of diagnostic radiology.
Their characteristics were analyzed through measurements of beam parameters such as: Practical peak voltage PPV , specific additional filtrations for each qualities high purity aluminum of about The inherent filtration of the X ray tube was also determined.
With the establishment of these radiation qualities, the LCI will be ready to calibrate the measuring instruments of radiation in the new qualities, allowing an improvement in radiological services offered by IPEN.
In order to perform the measurements necessary for the determination of these filters, it was developed an additional filter positioning system coupled to the X-ray tube. The determination of these filters was performed to obtain the first half value layer HVL according to the window with the values given by the IEC This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models.
IEEE and IEC present the criteria for establishing procedures demonstrating that the Class 1E equipment can meet its performance requirement during seismic events.
Equipment supplier and Utility have difficulties because of different applicable standards. In addition, this paper considers how the two sets of standards may be used in a complementary fashion to be possible using one or the other standard area. Prototype of generic server for wind power plants using IEC standard.
An analysis focusing on isolating the necessary requirements has been carried out based on the IEC in order to create a generic prototype which can be used by WPP vendors. The main Configuration of the system needs to be done in a simple way, ensuring a flexible From the requirements a prototype with the purpose of examining the key aspects of these definitions has been elaborated With the new IEC-standard for foci a clear distinction has been made between application oriented focus classification, expressed by the focus nominal value as a dimensionless number and the detectable real geometric focus measured in the sense of the principle 'Truth in advertising'.
Now, even regions of a size [de. Using the IEC standard to describe low-background detectors -- What can you expect? Many measurements for environmental levels of the radioactive content require that the gamma-ray detector be low background, that is, free of any radioactive content. This is, of course, not possible, but the radioactivity in the detector must be reduced to as low a value as possible. The description or specification of the background spectrum necessary to achieve the desired results is needed.
The new International Electrotechnical Commission IEC standard for describing the background makes the specification of the background in a high-purity germanium HPGe detector simple, unambiguous, and related to how the detector will be used.
IEC System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Wind Turbines - Rules and procedures
Wind Turbine Certification and Type Certification. Abstract Certification of wind turbines or components is state-of-the-art and a must in most places around the world. Furthermore certification to harmonised requirements is an active support of export. Therefore it is important for manufacturers, banks and insurances of wind turbines and components to know the different certification processes as well as guidelines. These individual modules are concluded with Statements of Compliance. Certificates are issued upon the successful completion of the relevant Type Certification and Project Certification. Certification of wind turbines has a history of almost thirty years.
Type and Project Certification IEC WT 01
PD IEC WT 01:2001, IEC WT 01:2001